CA. Cold Storage

Description of the frozen vegetables of fruits and vegetables
The atmosphere of the library picture of the atmosphere of the air conditioning ----- prepared catalog
General rule
Description of the atmosphere
The principle of air conditioning
Advantages of Air Conditioning Library
The difference between the atmosphere library and the general library
Structure of the atmosphere
Air conditioning equipment connection diagram
Part of the equipment
Adjustable investment costs
Adjust the return on investment in the atmosphere
Air conditioning library case brief and live picture
Air conditioning library instructions
Code for acceptance of air tightness
A list of stored and controlled parameters of fruits and vegetables
Hao Shuang refrigeration air conditioning cold storage project case
Standard Specification for Code for Design of Air Conditioning (SBJ 16-2009)
Description side: Hao cool refrigeration Compiler: Fang intended Tel: 15699991368 E-mail: QQ: 332444767 Signature:

General rule
Combined with national standards, norms Haocheng company design and construction quality, as well as customers understand the air conditioning cold storage, integrated companies a number of practical cases, the preparation of the preparation of the air and cold storage instructions.
This document is only applicable to the use of fluorine refrigeration, single-compartment atmosphere capacity of 1500m3 below the scope of the assembly of the atmosphere. For single rooms greater than 1500m3 above the cold, generally not recommended to separate such a large. Mainly in the late process of oxygen reduction, oxygen for a long time, after a short period of time into the storage of fruits and vegetables under the state of low oxygen storage, can not play the effect of the application of the atmosphere. Therefore, the proposed single room under 1500m3 in the more appropriate.
First, the atmosphere of the library description
Air conditioning library, also known as climate storage is the most advanced fruit and vegetable preservation methods. It is on the basis of refrigeration, to increase the regulation of gas composition, through the storage environment temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide, oxygen concentration and ethylene concentration and other conditions of control, inhibition of fruit and vegetable respiration, delay its metabolic process, to better keep fresh fruits and vegetables And merchandise, to extend the storage period of fruit and vegetables and shelf life (sales shelf life). Usually in the atmosphere of storage can be extended by 0.5-1 times the storage period; the atmosphere of the storage of fruits and vegetables, after the library from the "dormant" state "wake up", which makes fruit and vegetable storage after the shelf life (sales shelf period) Can be extended for 21 to 28 days, 3 to 4 times the ordinary cold storage. With the development of society now, the storage time of fruits and vegetables has become a contemporary theme.
The principle of air-conditioning library: Modified atmosphere storage preservation is based on the traditional cold storage on the basis of the development of modern preservation technology, is considered the world's best preserved fruit storage methods. Commercial gas storage has been abroad for more than 80 years of history, a variety of products in developed countries, especially apple, pear, kiwi fruit, citrus, grapes, jujube and other long-term storage of fruits and vegetables using atmospheric storage. Normal air, usually containing 21% oxygen, 0.03% of carbon dioxide, the rest of the nitrogen and some trace gases. The fruit is a living organism before and after picking, and its internal respiratory activity is the leading metabolic activity. Fruit postharvest aerobic respiration is characterized by: decomposition of fruits and tissues stored in the sugar, acid and other carbohydrates, resulting in carbon dioxide, water vapor, heat and some aromatic compounds, this process will consume fruit body. The stronger the respiration, the faster the consumption, the sooner the finish, the shorter the storage time. Effects of respiration intensity on oxygen, carbon dioxide gas and temperature. Storage space, high oxygen content, high respiratory strength, otherwise less. In the storage space, the high carbon dioxide gas content suppresses the respiration, slows the pectin decomposition and chlorophyll degradation, and can inhibit the microorganism. The storage space temperature decreases, the respiratory strength decreases, and vice versa increases. In addition, the environment of a certain concentration of hypoxia, high carbon dioxide has inhibited the breeding and expansion of fungal disease role. The basic principle of the fresh-keeping technology is to set the air-conditioning parameters according to the physiological characteristics of different fruits on the basis of the sealed library and the cold storage, and manually reduce the oxygen concentration in the storage space and increase the carbon dioxide gas through the special test equipment and the control equipment Concentration to set the air conditioning parameters, and throughout the storage period to accurately maintain this parameter, thereby inhibiting the fruit respiration, so that in a normal and low consumption of metabolic state, to achieve the purpose of fruit preservation.
The characteristics and advantages of the gas storage library: (1) storage time Long gas storage storage of low temperature (cold storage) and adjust the storage environment of the two components of the gas technology, a great extent to inhibit the fruit respiration, delay the fruit metabolism Rate, so that fruit storage period to a large extent to extend.
(Such as 6 to 8 months or more, then, after the long-term storage of pear, Korla pear and other fruits by long-term storage (such as 6 to 8 months or more), still bright color, fruit green , Pure flavor, the appearance of fullness, and just harvest when almost the same. In the case of apples, the hardness of the flesh and the titratable acid were higher than those of the frozen fruits during the same period.
(3) storage loss Low-energy storage, especially the atmosphere storage, strict control of the library temperature, humidity and oxygen and carbon dioxide and other gas components, effectively inhibited the fruit's respiration, transpiration and microbial hazards, during storage due to Dehydration, decay and other losses caused by greatly reduced. According to the Henan Institute of Biology on the observation of kiwi, in the same storage conditions, the ordinary cold storage loss of up to 15% to 20%, while the total loss of less than 4% of atmospheric storage.
(4) shelf life long after the preservation of the fruit because of long-term in the role of low oxygen and high carbon dioxide, in the lifting of the air conditioning state, there is still a long time "lag effect." According to the test on the apple in Shaanxi, it is generally believed that the shelf life of the modified atmosphere is 2 to 3 times that of the cold storage under the same quality. In addition, under the same storage time conditions, the atmosphere of storage of fruit after the library than the cold storage has a longer "life", easy to long-distance fruit transport and export.
(5) "green" storage in the fruit during the storage process, due to low temperature, low oxygen and relatively high carbon dioxide interaction, the basic can inhibit the occurrence of infectious diseases, storage process without the basic anti-corrosion treatment of chemicals The
The difference between the atmosphere library and the ordinary cold storage: the atmosphere is developed on the basis of the traditional high temperature cold storage, from the surface it looks like a cold storage, but in the building structure and use management and high temperature cold storage is very different The Mainly in: (1) air tightness
The airtightness is one of the most important features of the building of the atmosphere. Air conditioning library requires the envelope structure should not only have insulation, moisture, reduce the exchange of hot and cold with the outside world, but also requires the walls around the library, library doors and all the inlet and outlet connections strictly sealed, as much as possible to reduce the gas inside and outside the library exchange. Only in this way can artificially adjust the gas composition in the reservoir to reduce or avoid the interference of the outside gas to the gas composition in the reservoir.
(2) security
As the atmosphere of the envelope on the envelope of the air tightness requirements more stringent, so in the cooling, gas transfer process, with the library temperature and pressure changes, will make the envelope on both sides of the pressure difference, which will destroy the gas Dense layer, and even the envelope structure of the expansion or collapse. In order to balance and reduce the pressure inside and outside the library, the air conditioning library must be equipped with safety valve and air bag, closed-loop operation of the oxygen machine library pressure caused by this situation, open-loop operation of nitrogen and oxygen system is no This issue is worrying.
(3) fast forward and complete out
Fruit into the state of the atmosphere as short as possible, the atmosphere of storage requirements of fruit storage fast, so as soon as possible to fill, close the door and gas. During the storage process as much as possible to reduce the number of open the door, frequent open the door not only affect the storage effect, increase operating costs, but also reduce the library door air tightness. Fruit out of the library, in order to ensure the shelf life of the fruit, the best out of a final or in the short term finished.
(4) full storage
In addition to leaving the necessary ventilation, check the channel, the library should be as high as the full pile of fruit. On the one hand, due to the more fruit in the library, the less the porosity of the library, and the less the consumption of oxygen in the fruit, the shorter the time the fruit enters the atmosphere; on the other hand, the larger the volume utilization factor, Can be reduced.
A complete atmosphere is composed of a library structure, an atmosphere, a refrigeration and a humidification system.
The structure of the atmosphere can be divided into masonry (civil) and color plating sandwich board assembly of two. Masonry-style atmosphere of the building structure is basically the same with the ordinary cold storage, with the traditional building insulation materials masonry made; or cold storage from the transformation. In the inner surface of the library to add a layer of airtight layer, the airtight layer directly laying on the envelope. This kind of masonry air conditioning library investment is reasonable, but the construction period is long. Color plating sandwich insulation board as a result of the production of the library material, in the construction site only need a simple assembly, construction period is short, slightly higher than the masonry investment, and airtight construction more convenient and reliable masonry. In addition to masonry and assembly type, there is a jacket-type atmosphere library, usually in the original cold storage library installed a layer of airtight structure, cooling still use the original facilities, Dense structure.
The atmosphere should be made by a certain qualification of professional design and construction units to implement, more than a thousand tons of large and medium-sized air-conditioned library, including air-conditioned, pre-cooling, room temperature through the Church, technical corridors, finishing, refrigeration and air conditioning room and control Room, variable distribution room, pumping station and platform, and so on. In addition there are offices, warehouses, quality inspection room, roads, walls and other ancillary facilities.
Conditioning system
(1) nitrogen and oxygen reduction equipment
The oxygen reduction of the air-conditioned reservoir is generally carried out by means of inflatable replacement, that is, through the nitrogen generator system to take a higher concentration (generally nitrogen content ≥ 95%) of nitrogen, and through the pipeline into the library, while filling with nitrogen Oxygen more gas through the other vent, so repeatedly charge and discharge, you can reduce the oxygen content of the library to about 5%, and then through the fruit's own breathing to continue to reduce oxygen and increase the concentration of carbon dioxide to achieve Adjust the purpose of the gas composition of the library.
According to the physiological characteristics of fruits and vegetables, the general requirements of oxygen content within the library control in the 3% -5% range, the error does not exceed ± 1%. To this end, through the nitrogen machine quickly oxygen. Start 1-3 days (the greater the bank the greater the oxygen down) to reduce the oxygen inside the library to the target, and then between the fruit oxygen consumption and artificial oxygen, to establish a relatively stable balance system, to control the library Oxygen content of the purpose.
(2) carbon dioxide removal machine
Fruit in the atmosphere during storage, due to fruit and vegetable respiration and release of carbon dioxide will increase the concentration of carbon dioxide in the library, when the carbon dioxide concentration increased to a certain value, it will lead to carbon dioxide damage, and produce a series of adverse symptoms, and ultimately make it Rotten. At this time must use the CO2 removal machine to remove the excess CO2 in the library, to achieve the best range of climate parameters.
(3) Ethylene removal machine
Ethylene (C2H4) is a kind of plant hormones that can promote fruit and vegetable respiration and accelerate mature aging. It is also called "ripening hormone", which is the product of metabolic products, smoke in chimneys in the external environment, automobile exhaust, some factories Of the exhaust gas also contains a certain amount of ethylene. Ethylene is very sensitive to fruit, such as kiwi, bananas, etc., must be stored under the conditions of ethylene concentration below the threshold, generally up to 0.02PPm level; apples, pears and other low-ethylene atmosphere storage, storage effect will be greatly improved; Ethylene is not sensitive to the fruit, the atmosphere storage does not require the installation of ethylene removal device.
(4) automatic control equipment
The air conditioning library must accurately measure and control the gas composition of each library throughout the storage period. A warehouse, measured oxygen exceeded, it should open the nitrogen generator, nitrogen and oxygen, until the oxygen content to the process parameters set value. If CO2 is exceeded, it should open the library of the return valve, open the CO2 removal machine to remove CO2, until the library CO2 to set the value. In order to improve the degree of automation of the operation and management of the atmosphere, the domestic and foreign air-conditioning equipment manufacturers have designed and manufactured the corresponding automatic control equipment, so that most of the above work to achieve automation. Each air-conditioned room can be set according to the variety of fruit of their own air conditioning parameters, and automatic roving detection.
4. Humidification equipment
Due to the long storage period of the fruit in the atmosphere, the filled nitrogen is also very dry, the fruit water evaporation more, in order to reduce the storage environment and fruit water vapor partial pressure difference between the water evaporation, keep the atmosphere Higher relative humidity (95%), reduce dry consumption, the general atmosphere should be set up humidifier. Humidifier sub-ultrasonic humidifier and centrifugal humidifier two.
Ultrasonic humidifier using high-frequency oscillating current acting on the transducer head, resulting in high-frequency oscillation wave, so that water atomization, in order to prevent pigmentation, it is best to use the treated softened water. Centrifugal humidifier using high-speed rotation of the impeller will be labeled as water mist, the water quality requirements are not high, but prone to water droplets, so that the humidification effect is reduced.
Introduction to Air Conditioning Equipment (omitted)
The composition of the atmosphere
1, a complete atmosphere of the library, the need for three major part of the cost of equipment. Civil construction (the customer is responsible for their own), the general need to build the size of the house or steel structure, in the structure of space inside the air conditioning library construction. Any cold storage, air conditioning library is best not to be exposed to the outdoor environment. Should be necessary to prevent the sun against the sun anti-snow wind protection, or fail to achieve a good cold storage atmosphere should have the effect. So the first step is the cost of land and civil construction costs, according to the market in general, an ordinary steel structure by the square, about 400-450 yuan / m2, and then by the area, you can roughly budget the cost of steel. The local construction fees are not the same, the cost of steel structure is not consistent, so the note is only appropriate to illustrate, specifically in accordance with local standards consulting. With the appropriate building envelope, you can build the corresponding interior of the building.
2, the atmosphere of thermal insulation library, the door body
Good air conditioning library standards are airtight, must be a professional manufacturer and engineering firm to carry out careful construction, in order to achieve excellent airtight performance. To ensure that the late use to achieve the desired effect. This part of the cost is by the floor of the six sides of the area of insulation to calculate the number of.
3, refrigeration equipment
Mainly to control the atmosphere inside the atmosphere, this equipment is generally foreign brands, mainly in mainland China factory production. The price varies.
4, air conditioning equipment
The main role is to control the gas inside the library of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and ethylene content. The cost is configured to adjust the capacity of the volume of the library. At present, there are many domestic manufacturers have related equipment.
5, humidification equipment
Control the humidity inside the moisture inside the moisture content. Generally for ultrasonic humidification.
6, the above five major costs for the cost of air conditioning equipment. The warehouse is configured for later purchase. This time not in the air conditioning library to discuss the cost.
Description of the return on investment
In accordance with the construction of 100 tons of fruit cold storage library, for example, 100 tons, about 550 cubic meters, cold storage covers an area of about 130 square feet, height of about 4 meters. Construction costs about 8-10 million or so, the overall cost of about 40 million cold storage, the total cost of about 500,000 yuan. According to the storage of grape varieties, then around the end of October storage, New Year's Day around the Spring Festival to the library sales. Storage price of 4 yuan / kg, listed sales price of about 15 yuan / kg, profit price of 11 yuan / kg. By 100 tons, that is, 1 million kilograms, multiplied by profit of 11 yuan, the profit of 1.1 million. 2-3 months of electricity costs about 2,000 yuan per month, 3 months about 6,000 yuan. Built cost of 500,000, electricity costs 0.6 million. Basically that year can be back to the profit. Of course, this comparative analysis is for reference only. The specific circumstances of the market price may be.


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